S . C. ALLYN , A RETIRED CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD, LIKES TO TELL A STORY ABOUT HIS COMPANY — THE NATIONAL CASH REGISTER CORPORATION. (NCR)
It was August 1945, and Allyn was among the first allied civilians to enter into Germany at the end of the war. He had gone to find out what had happened to an NCR factory built just before the war but promptly confiscated by the German military command and put to work on the war effort. He arrived via military plane and traveled through burned-out buildings, rubble, and utter desolation until he reached what was left of the factory. Picking his way through bricks, cement, and old timbers, Allyn came upon two NCR employees whom he hadn’t seen for six years. Their clothes were torn and their faces grimy and blackened by smoke, but they were busy clearing out the rubble. As he came closer, one of the men looked up and said, “We knew you’d come!” Allyn joined them in their work and so together the three men began cleaning out the debris and rebuilding the factory from the devastation of war. The company had even survived the ravages of a world war
A few days later, as the clearing continued, Allyn and his co-workers were startled as an American tank rumbled up to the site. A grinning GI was at its helm. “Hi,” he said, “I’m NCR, Omaha. Did you guys make your quota this month?” Allyn and the GI embraced each other. The war may have devastated everything around them, but NCR’s hard driving, sales-oriented culture was still intact.
This story may sound unbelievable, but there are hundreds like it at NCR and every other successful company. Together they make up the myths and legends of American business. What do they mean? To us these stories mean that businesses are human institutions, not plush buildings, bottom lines, or strategic analysis, or five-year plans. NCR was never just a factory to the three men who dug it out of the rubble. Nor was it to others like them. Rather it was an old living organization. The company’s real existence lay in the hearts and minds of its employees. NCR was, and still is, a corporate culture, a cohesion of values, myths, heroes, and symbols that has come to mean a great deal to the people who work there.
Culture, as Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary defines it, is the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thought, speech, action, and artifacts and depends on man’s capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations.”
Marvin Bower, for years managing director of McKinsey & Company and author of The Will to Manage, offered a more informal definition—he described the informal cultural elements of a business as “the way we do things around here.”
IN FACT EVERY ORGANIZATION—
HAS A CULTURE.
Sometimes it is fragmented and difficult to read from the outside—some people are loyal to their bosses, others are loyal to the union, still others care only about their colleagues who work in the sales territories of the Northeast. If you ask employees why they work, they will answer “because we need the money.” On the other hand, sometimes the culture of an organization is very strong and cohesive; everyone thus knows the goals of the corporation, and they are working for them. Whether weak or strong, culture has a powerful influence throughout an organization; it affects practically everything—from who gets promoted and what decisions are made, to how employees dress and what sports they play. Because of this impact, we think that culture also has a major effect on the success of the business.
Today, everyone seems to complain about the decline in American productivity. The examples of industries in trouble are numerous and depressing. Books proclaim that Japanese management practices are the solution to America’s industrial malaise.
BUT WE DISAGREE. We don’t think the answer is to mimic the Japanese. Nor do we think the solution lies with the tools of “scientific” management: MBAs’ analyses, portfolio theories, cost curves, or econometric models . Instead we think the answer is as American as apple pie. American business needs to return to the original concepts and ideas that made institutions like NCR, General Electric, International Business Machines (IBM), Procter & Gamble, 3M, and others great. We need to remember that people make businesses work. And we need to relearn old lessons about how culture ties people together and gives meaning and purpose
to their day-to-day lives.
The early leaders of American business such as Thomas Watson of IBM, Harley Procter of Procter & Gamble, and General Johnson of Johnson & Johnson believed that strong culture brought success.
They believed that the lives and productivity of their employees were shaped by where they worked. These builders saw their role as creating an environment—in effect, a culture—in their companies in which employees could be secure and thereby do the work necessary to make the business a success. They had no magic formulas. In fact, they discovered how to shape their company’s culture by trial and error. But all along the way, they paid almost fanatical attention to the culture of their companies. The lessons of these early leaders have been passed down in their own companies from generation to generation of managers; the cultures they were so careful to build and nourish have sustained their organizations through both fat and lean times. Today these corporations still have strong cultures and still are leaders in the marketplace.
We think that anyone in business can learn a lot from these examples. A major reason the Japanese have been so successful, we think, is their continuing ability to maintain a very strong and cohesive culture throughout the entire country. Not only do individual businesses have strong cultures, but the links among business, the banking industry, and the government are also cultural and also very powerful. Japan, Inc., is actually an expansion of the corporate culture idea on a national scale. Although this homogenization of values would not fit American culture on a national scale, we do think that it has been very effective for individual companies. In fact, a strong culture has almost always been the driving force behind continuing success in American business. We came to this conclusion through our work and study—Kennedy at McKinsey & Company and Deal at Harvard’s Graduate School of Education. The idea had several origins. One was at a meeting at Stanford. A group of sociologists was puzzling over the absence of relationships among variables that organizational the ory said should be related. If the structure of an organization doesn’t control work activities, what does it do? These questions led to new theories and views: structure and strategy may be more symbolic than substantive. The other was a McKinsey meeting. We were talking about the many problems of organizations, and someone asked, “What makes for consistently outstanding company performance?” Another person offered the hypothesis that the
companies that did best over the long haul were those that believed in something. The example was , “IBM means service.” Others chimed in, and soon the table was full of examples:
• GE: “Progress is our most important product.”
* DuPont: “Better things for better living through chemistry.”
• Chubb Insurance: “Excellence in underwriting.”
While the focus at that point was on slogan-like evidence of a paramount belief— which we later called a “superordinate goal”— we were struck by the fact that each of the companies named had an impressive track record in the marketplace.
Intrigued by this initial evidence of support for our somewhat unconventional hypothesis, we conducted an informal survey over the next several months by interviewing McKinsey consultants about companies or organizations they knew on a firsthand basis. The questions we asked were:
* Does Company X have one or more visible beliefs?
• If so, what are they?
• Do people in the organization know these beliefs?
If so, who? And how many?
• How do these beliefs affect day-to-day business?
• How are the beliefs communicated to the organization?
• Are the beliefs reinforced—by formal personnel processes,
• How would you characterize the performance of the company?
In total, over a period of about six months, we developed profiles of nearly eighty companies. Here’s what we found out: Of all the companies surveyed, only about one third (twenty-five to be precise) had clearly articulated beliefs. Of this third, a surprising two-thirds had qualitative beliefs, or values, such as “IBM means service.” The other third had financially oriented goals that were widely understood. Of the eighteen companies with qualitative beliefs, all were uniformly outstanding performers; we could find no correlations of any relevance among the other companies—some did okay, some poorly most had their ups and downs. We characterized the consistently high performers as strong culture companies.
These strong culture companies, we thought were on to something. And so were we. Although this was far from a scientific survey we did have evidence that the impact of values and beliefs on company performance was indeed real. We decided to follow up this “finding” by trying to figure out how these values got there and how they were transmitted throughout the corporation. We wanted to see what had made America’s great companies not merely organizations, but successful, human institutions.
*These were: Caterpillar Tractor, General Electric, DuPont, Chubb Insurance, Price Waterhouse & Co., 3M, Jefferson-Smurfit, The Training Services Administration Agency of the British government, Digital Equipment Corporation, International Business Machines, Dana Corporation, Procter & Gamble, Hewlett-Packard, Leo Burnett Advertising Agency, Johnson & Johnson, Tandem Computer, Continental Bank, and the Rouse Corporation.
Here we stumbled onto a goldmine of evidence. Biographies, speeches, and many documents from such giants of business as Thomas Watson of IBM, John Patterson (the founder of NCR), Will Durant of General Motors, William Kellogg of ellogg’s, and a host of others show a remarkable intuitive understanding of the importance of a strong culture in the affairs of their companies.
We read about Edwin Land, who built Polaroid into a successful $1 billion company (before losing control and having the company fall on hard times) and who developed a whole theory for Polaroid’s culture; he called it “Semi-Topia’ after the theories of Utopia. We also learned about Alfred Sloan, the manager who built General Motors into a monolith, who spent three full days every quarter reviewing person-by-person the career progression of his top 1,000 managers. And about Charles Steinmetz, the crippled Austrian dwarf who brought alternating current into electrical systems of the world while at GE, but who also adopted his lab assistant and the man’s entire family. These, and many more stories, led us to one unmistakable conclusion: the people who built the companies for which America is famous all worked obsessively to create strong cultures within their organizations.
In our own research and consulting, we also found that many of the exciting, new, high-tech businesses springing up around Route 128 in Boston and Silicon Valley in California seem obsessed with culture. Consider the case of Tandem.
THE BUSINESS OF CULTURE
The Tandem Corporation, one of Silicon Valley’s most highly publicized companies, is a company whose president deliberately manages the “informal,” human side of the business. Founded by four former Hewlett-Packard employees, Tandem has built a highly sudcessful company by solving a simple problem: the tendency of computers to break down. By yoking two computers together in one mainframe, Tandem offers customers the assurance that they will always have computer power available . If one of the processors breaks down, the other will carry on.
“Tandem is saying something about the product and people working together. Everything here works together. People with people; product with product; even processor with processor, within the product. Everything works together to keep us where we are. ‘ The quotation is not from Jim Treybig, Tandem’s chief executive officer. It came from one of Tandem’s managers, and the same sentiment is echoed through the ranks of the employees: “I feel like putting a lot of time in. There is a real kind of loyalty here. We are all working in this together—working a process together . I’m not a workaholic—it’s just the place. I love the place.” I don’t want anything in the world that would hurt Tandem. I feel totally divorced from my old company, but not Tandem.”
These employees seem to be describing an ideal corporation, one most managers would give their eyeteeth to create. And by most standards, Tandem is absolutely enormously successful. it is growing at the rate of 25 percent per quarter, with annual revenues over $100 million . The turnover rate is nearly three times below the national average for the computer industry Tandem’s loyal employees like their jobs and the company’s product. They are led by a talented group of experienced managers, a group which so far has been able to handle the phenomenal growth of the company.
Only time will tell whether Tandem can maintain its pattern of high performance. While it is easy to attribute the success of the company to fast growth and lack of competition, other things at work internally at Tandem suggest an interesting rival explanation—that the strong culture of Tandem produces its success. Here is how.
A WIDELY SHARED PHILOSOPHY.
Tandem is founded on a well-ordered set of management beliefs and practices. The philosophy of the company emphasizes the importance of people: “that’s Tandem’s greatest resource—its people, creative action, and fun.” This ethic is widely shared and exemplified by slogans that everyone knows and believes in:
“It’s so nice, it’s so nice, we do it twice.”
“It takes two to Tandem.”
“Get the job done no matter what it takes.”
“Tandemize it—means make it work.”
The slogans are broadcast by T-shirts, bulletin boards, and word of mouth.
Top management spends about half of its time in training and in communicating the management philosophy and the essence of the company. Work is underway on a book that will codify the philosophy for future generations of workers at Tandem. “The philosophy is our future,” one senior manager notes: “It mostly tells the ‘whats’ and ‘hows’ for selecting people and growing managers. Even though everything else around here changes, I don’t want what we believe in and what we want to change.” At Tandem the management philosophy is not an after-thought, it’s a principle preoccupation.
THE IMPORTANCE OF PEOPLE.
Tandem has no formal organizational chart and few formal rules. Its meetings and memos are almost non-existent. Jobs are flexible in terms of duties and hours. The absence of name tags and reserved parking spaces suggests a less well-defined hierarchy than is typical in the corporate world. Despite this, the organization works and people get their jobs done.
What keeps employees off each other’s toes and working in the same direction? One possibility is the unwritten rules and shared understandings. As one person put it: “There are a lot of unwritten rules. But there is also a lot of freedom to make a jerk out of yourself. Most of the rules are philosophical rules.” Another is the dispersed authority: “The open door policy gives me access to anyone—even the president.”
“Everyone here, managers, vice-presidents, and even janitors, communicate on the same level. No one feels better than anyone else.”
Tandem seems to maintain a balance between autonomy and control without relying heavily on centralized or formalized procedures, or rigid status hierarchies.
The President and the Product. Jim Treybig is a hero at Tandem, and his employees confirm it: “Jimmy is really a symbol here. He’s a sign that every person here is a human being . He tries to make you feel part of the organization from the first day you are here. That’s something people talk about.” “The one thing you have to understand about the company—Treybig’s bigger than life.”
Treybig shares the hero’s limelight with the Tandem Continuous 10 Computer—the backbone product of the company. The computer design is the company’s logo and provides the metaphor for the “working together” philosophy. “The product is phenomenal, everyone is proud to be part of it.’’ “When a big order was shipped, everyone in the plant was taking pictures. There were ‘oh’s’ and ‘ahs’. People were applauding. Can you believe it? For a computer.”
Treybig and the computer share the main spotlight. But there are countless other heroes at Tandem—people whose achievements are regularly recognized on bulletin boards as “Our Latest Greatests.”
RITUAL AND CEREMONY.
Tandem is renowned for its Friday afternoon “beer-busts” which everyone attends. But the ritual does more than help people wind down after a busy work week. It serves as an important vehicle for informal communication and mingling across groups.
Tandem’s emphasis on ritual, ceremony, and play is not confined to beer-busts, however. There is a golf course, exercise room, and swimming pool. Company- wide celebrations are staged on important holidays. These provide opportunities for employees to develop a spirit of “oneness” and symbolize that Tandem cares about employees.
Tandem’s attention to ritual and ceremony begins in its personnel selection interviews. During the hiring process, potential employees are called back two or three times for interviews and must accept the position before salary negotiations take place. The interviews have been likened to an “inquisition.” The message conveyed to prospective employees is “we take longer, and take care of people we hire—because we really care.” The impact of this process is significant.
“They had me here for four interviews. That’s about four hours, for a position of stock clerk. It was clear that they were choosy about the people they hired. That said something about what they thought I was. They thought I was good.”
Treybig personally appears at each orientation to welcome new employees and to explain the company’s motivation and commitment philosophy. His appearance reinforces the honor of being accepted to work at Tandem. It’s no surprise that people at Tandem feel special—after all, they were made to feel that way before they were hired. Moreover, they feel special because the company and its product are special. And their feelings are expressed in an unusual display of loyalty and commitment to the company.
“My goals follow the company’s. It’s the company and I. I think that’s pretty true of everyone. We all want to see it work. You have to have it all or don’t have any of it.” Employees see their work as linked to Tandem’s success: “My job is very important, and if I don’t do it, Tandem doesn’t make a buck.”
Tandem is a unique company. And much of its success appears as intimately tied to its culture as to its product and marketplace position. The company has explicit values and beliefs which its employees share. It has heroes. It has storytellers and stories. It has rituals and ceremonies on key occasions. Tandem appears to have a strong culture which creates a bond between the company and employees, and inspires levels of productivity unlike most other corporations. Established heroes, values, and rituals are crucial to a culture’s continued strength, and Tandem has kept them.
The trick is in sustaining the culture so that it in turn drives the company. Will Tandem’s culture last? Although Tandem is neither big enough nor old enough to judge whether or not it will ultimately take a place in the annals of great American business, we think it is off to a good start. Indeed, other companies like IBM and P&G have already succeeded in sustaining and evolving culture over generations. These strong culture companies truly are the giants of American industry. Yet, their cultures began taking shape in a way that was very similar to Tandem.
THE ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
What is it about Tandem’s organization that exerts such a grip on its employees? Why do other strong culture companies seem to inspire such loyalty? As we continued our research, we delved into the organizational literature to understand better the elements that make up a strong culture. What is it that determines the kind of culture a company will have in the first place? And how will that culture work in the day-to-day life of a company? Although we examine each one in depth later in the book, let’s summarize the elements now:
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT . Each company faces a different reality in the marketplace depending on its products, competitors, customers, technologies, and government influences, and so on. .To succeed in its marketplace, each company must carry out certain kinds of activities very well. In some markets that means selling; in others, invention; in still others, management of costs. In short, the environment in which a company operates determines what it must do to be a success. This business environment is the single greatest influence in shaping a corporate culture. Thus, companies that depend for success on their ability to sell an undifferentiated product tend to develop one type of culture—what we call a work hard/play hard culture—that keeps its sales force selling. Companies that spend a great deal of research and development money before they even know if the final product will be successful or not tend to develop a different culture—one that we call a bet-your-company culture—designed to make sure decisions are thought through before actions are taken.
VALUES. These are the basic concepts and beliefs of an organization; as such they form the heart of the corporate culture. Values define ‘success” in concrete terms for employees—”if you do this, you too will be a success” — and establish standards of achievement within the organization. The strong culture companies that we investigated all had a rich and complex system of values that were shared by the employees. Managers in these companies talked about these beliefs openly and without embarrassment, and they didn’t tolerate deviance from the company standards.
HEROES. These people personify the culture’s values and as such provide tangible role models for employees to follow. Some heroes are born—the visionary institution builders of American business—and some are “made” by memorable moments that occur in day-to-day corporate life. Smart companies take a direct hand in choosing people to play these heroic roles, knowing full well that others will try to emulate their behavior. Strong culture companies have many heroes. At General Electric , for instance, the heroes include Thomas Edison, the inventor; Charles Steinmetz, the compleat engineer; Gerald Swope and now Jack Welch, the CEO entrepreneurs; and a legion of lesser-known but equally important internal figures: the inventor of the high-torque motor that powered the electric toothbrush; the chief engineer of the turbine works; the export salesman who survived two overseas revolutions; the international manager who had ghosts exorcised from a factory in Singapore; and many others. These achievers are known to virtually every employee with more than a few months’ tenure in the company. And they show every employee “here’s what you have to do to succeed around here.”
THE RITES AND RITUALS. These are the systematic and programmed routines of day-to-day life in the company. In their mundane manifestations— which we call rituals—they show employees the kind of behavior that is expected of them . In their extravaganzas—which we call ceremonies—they provide visible and potent examples of what the company stands for. Strong culture companies go to the trouble of spelling out, often in copious detail, the routine behavioral rituals they expect their employees to follow.
THE CULTURAL NETWORK. As the primary (but informal) means of communication within an organization, the cultural net-work is the “carrier” of the corporate values and heroic mythology. Storytellers, spies, priests, cabals, and whisperers form a hidden hierarchy of power within the company . Working the network effectively is the only way to get things done or to understand what’s really going on.
THE IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING CULTURE
Companies that have cultivated their individual identities by shaping values, making heroes, spelling out rites and rituals, and acknowledging the cultural network have an edge. These corporations have values and beliefs to pass along—not just their products. They have stories to tell—not just profits to make. They have heroes whom managers and workers can emulate—not just faceless bureaucrats. In short, they are human institutions that provide practical meaning for people, both on and off the job.
We think that people are a company’s greatest resource, and the way to manage them is not directly by computer reports, but by the subtle cues of a culture. A strong culture is a powerful lever for guiding behavior; it helps employees do their jobs a little better, especially in two ways: A strong culture is a system of informal rules that spells out how people are to behave most of the time. By knowing what exactly is expected of them, employees will waste little time in deciding how to act in a given situation. In a weak culture, on the other hand, employees waste a good deal of time just trying to figure out what they should do and how they should do it. The impact of a strong culture on productivity is amazing. In the extreme, we estimate that a company can gain as much as one or two hours of productive work per employee per day . A strong culture enables people to feel better about what they do, so they are more likely to work harder. When a sales representative can say “I’m with IBM,” rather than “I peddle typewriters for a living,” he will probably hear in response, “Oh, IBM is a great company, isn’t it?” He quickly figures out that he belongs to an outstanding company with a strong identity For most people, that means a great deal. The next time they have the choice of working an extra half hour or sloughing off, they’ll probably work. Overall, this has an impact on productivity too.
Unlike workers ten or twenty years ago, employees today are confused. According to psychologis t Frederick Herzberg, they feel cheated by their jobs; they allow special interests to take up their time; their life values are uncertain; they are blameful and cynical; they confuse morality with ethics. Uncertainty is at the core of it all. Yet strong culture companies remove a great degree of that uncertainty because they provide structure and standards and a value system in which to operate. In fact, corporations may be among the last institutions in America that can effectively take on the role of shaping values. We think that workers, managers, and chief executive officers should recognize this and act on it.
People at all stages of their careers need to understand culture and how it works because it will likely have a powerful effect on their work lives. People just starting their careers may think a job is just a job. But when they choose a company they often choose a way of life. The culture shapes their responses in a strong, but subtle way. Culture can make them fast or slow workers, tough or friendly managers, team players or individuals. By the time they’ve worked for several years, they may be so well conditioned by the culture they may not even recognize it . But when they change jobs, they may be in for a big surprise.
Take an up-and-coming executive at General Electric who is being wooed by Xerox—more money, a bigger office, greater responsibility . If his first reaction is to grab it, he’s probably going to be disappointed. Xerox has a totally different culture than GE. Success (and even survival) at Xerox is closely tied to an ability to maintain a near frenetic pace, the ability to work and play hard, Xerox-style.
By contrast, GE has a more thoughtful and slow-moving culture. The GE culture treats each business activity seriously—almost as though each activity will have an enormous impact on the company. Success at GE is a function of being able to take work seriously a strong sense of peer group respect, considerable deference for authority and a sense of deliberateness. A person of proven success at GE will bring these values to Xerox because past experience in GE’s culture has reinforced them. But these same values may not be held in high esteem elsewhere.
Bright young corners at GE could, for example, quickly fizzle out at Xerox—and not even understand why. They’ll be doing exactly what they did to succeed at GE—maybe even working harder at it—but their deliberate approach to issues large and small will be seen by insiders at Xerox as a sign that they “lack smarts.” Their loss of confidence, self-esteem, and ability will be confusing to them and could very significantly derail their careers. For Xerox, the loss of productivity could be appreciable.
THIS IS NO IMAGINARY SCENARIO. It happens again and again at Xerox, General Electric, and many other companies when managers ignore the influence of culture on individual approaches to work. Culture shock may be one of the major reasons why people supposedly “fail” when they leave one organization for another. Where they fail, however, is not necessarily in doing the job, but in not reading the culture correctly
People who want to get ahead within their own companies also need to understand — at least intuitively—what makes their culture tick. If product quality is the guiding value of your company, then you’d better be thinking about getting into manufacturing where you can contribute to the work on quality control teams. If you’re a marketing whiz in a company where all of the heroes are number crunchers, then you may have a problem. You can start taking accounting courses, or you can start trying to find a more compatible environment. Unless the culture itself is in a state of change—shifting, say, from a financial emphasis to a marketing orientation—then the chances are very slim for any single person who is out’ of step with the culture to make it to the very top.
Aside from considerations of personal success, managers must understand very clearly how the culture works if they want to accomplish what they set out to do. If you’re trying to institute a competitive, tough approach to marketing in a company that is full of hail-fellow-well-met salesmen, then you have your work cut out for you. Even if everyone agrees with what you want to do, you must know how to manage the culture—for instance, create new role model heroes—in order to teach your legion of easy-going salesmen the new rules of the game.
FINALLY, senior executives and especially chief executive officers may be missing out on one of the key ingredients for their companies’ eventual success by ignoring either the influence of culture on corporate success or their own central role in shaping it.
Their culture may be rich with lore or starved for shared values and stories. It may be coherent and cohesive, or fragmented and poorly understood. It may create meaning or contribute to blind confusion. It may be rich, fiery focused, and very strong; or weak, cold, and diffuse. Understanding the culture can help senior executives pinpoint why their company is succeeding or failing. Understanding how to build and manage the culture can help the same executives make a mark on their company that lasts for decades.
Can every company have a strong culture? We think it can. But to do that, top management first has to recognize what kind of culture the company already has, even if it is weak. The ultimate success of a chief executive officer depends to a large degree on an accurate reading of the corporate culture and the ability to hone it and shape it to fit the shifting needs of the marketplace.
In reading this book, we can imagine that many managers will ask themselves, is culture too ‘soft’? Can serious managers actually take the time to deal with it? Indeed, we believe that managers must. Management scientists sometimes argue that corporations are so complex and vulnerable to diverse external and internal forces that managers’ freedom to act and lead is limited. Their argument is most plausible, but our experience does not support it. By and large, the most successful managers we know are precisely those who strive to make a mark through creating a guiding vision, shaping shared values, and otherwise providing leadership for the people with whom they work.
It all comes down to understanding the importance of working with people in any organization . The institution builders of old knew the value of a strong culture and they worked hard at it. They saw themselves as symbolic players-actors in their corporations. They knew how to orchestrate, even dramatize events to drive their lessons home. They understood how corporations shape personal lives and were not shy about suggesting the standards that people should live by. If we are to have such great institutions tomorrow, the managers of today will have to take up this challenge again.
Our goal in this book is to provide business leaders with a primer on cultural management. In showing how several excellent companies manage their cultures, this book is meant to be suggestive only, not hard and fast or prescriptive . Our aim is to heighten the awareness of our readers, to jog them into thinking about the workplace in its role as a mediator of behavior, and to then show the positive effects of culture-building. Along the way, we hope to instill in our readers a new law of business life: IN CULTURE THERE IS STRENGTH.
“You may see several companies—such as General Electric—and several individuals—such as Thomas Watson—named again and again throughout the book. This is because we consider them the absolutely best examples we could find to illustrate our ideas . Managers could do worse than to emulate these examples.
by: Terrence E. Deal and Allen A. Kennedy
Copyright @ 1982. By: Addison-Wesley Publishing, Inc.
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