Two programs in the northeastern United States are finding uses for waste wood. CitiLog, a New Jersey-based company, salvages urban and suburban trees that are being cut because of age or disease, or to make room for development, and ships them to Amish carpenters in Pennsylvania, according to AMC Outdoors (March 2006).

The woodworkers turn the trees, which would otherwise be chipped or burned, into lumber and furniture. The magazine reports in its April issue that a higher-tech solution comes from SUNY- Syracuse researchers, who have discovered a way to turn the sugars produced (and tossed out) by paper mills into fuel-grade ethanol—a source that could meet 80 percent of current demand for the fuel. A for-profit refinery is now under construction in upstate New York.



On September 11, we will reflect on the terrorist attacks that forever changed our country’s collective memory. For 95 years before that fateful day in 2001, the anniversary many associated with 9/11 was the launch, in 1906, of Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violent resistance to British imperialism.

New Yorkers for a Department of Peace, an organization that promotes nonviolence, is planning a citywide 100th celebration of Gandhi’s courage and foresight. ‘Our aim is to remind people that since this country’s founding, peace has been an organizing principle” says Liz Graydon, the group’s state coordinator. Events include a theatrical re-release of Richard Attenborough’s 1982 film biography of the Indian nationalist leader. For more information, see www.nyc-dop.com.

On a campus bulletin board at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

in Troy, New York:

  “As for pushy metric proponents,

 give ‘em 2.54 cm. and they’ll take 1.6093 km.”

                              On Winslow, Arizona, dry cleaners:

“Working on same spot for 21 years.”

          Sign posted on outdoor penguin habitat in Camden, New Jersey,

          during December 2002: “Penguins have been temporarily moved

inside due to bad weather conditions.”


Spring is here, school’s almost over and Mom’s in her glory. Need more reasons to celebrate? Bet you forgot these:

          May 8: No Socks Day. If we give up wearing socks for one day, it

                    will mean less laundry. And fewer lost socks.

          May 16: The Start of International Pickle Week. In honor of the

                    world’s most humorous vegetable.

          May 25: National Tap Dance Day. Celebrate the unique American

                    art form on the anniversary of Bill “Bo jangles” Robinson’s birthday.

          May 30: Hug Your Cat Day. They may appear aloof, but cats crave

                    the attention.

You can’t get spoiled

if you do your own ironing!


instead of climbing over barricades,

you should just walk around them

Show me someone who cannot tell his friends from his enemies—

I”ll show you somebody who”s going to end up with no friends.

My perspective of my father has changed immensely.

He was a lot taller when I was a little guy.


                                                                        Is a four-letter word. And like

                                                                        tape, or zoom, or face, or pain,

                                                                        or love, or life, or work, etc.

                                                                        What ultimately matters------

                                                                        IS WHAT WE DO WITH IT!

Motherhood is not for the fainthearted ! ! !

Frogs, snakes, skinned knees and the insults

of teenage girls are not meant for the wimps.

How do they make M&M’S?

A. The main issue is how the manufacturer gets a perfectly smooth, layered candy shell on a mass-produced food that never knows a human touch until the bag is opened. SO!

Dip the chocolate in a liquid candy that hardens? you venture

But you’d have to put the candy somewhere while the shell hardens. If you did that, you’d expect the M&M’S to have a flat bottom. One ingenious (wrong) answer: There’s a sheet of boiling chocolate, and they freeze the peanuts and fire them through it so it instantly freezes, and the chocolate is hard by the time it hits the ground.

The actual method used by Mars, Inc. is both clever and simple. The chocolate centers of “milk chocolate” M&M’S are cast in little molds. The chocolate ellipsoids are put in a big rotating drum, like a cement mixer. While jostling in the drum, they’re sprayed with a sugary liquid that hardens into a white candy shell. Constant movement prevents the candies from congealing into a big lump. The candies are then squirted with a second colored sugar liquid. This hardens into the coating on top.

An enigma is how the little m is printed. This is done by pouring the candies onto a conveyor belt where each fits into one of thousands of M&M’S-shaped depressions. They’re then gently imprinted by a bank of rubber dies carrying the letter m in white edible ink.


Why are manhole covers round rather than square?

A. A square cover could fall into its hole, injuring someone or getting lost underwater. Should you hold a square manhole cover al most vertically and turn it a little, it will easily fall into the hole . In contrast, a circle has the same diameter in all directions. This and the slight recess in the lower part of the cover prevents a circular cover from falling in, no matter how it’s held.

Another answer: One person can roll a circular cover if it needs to be moved a short distance. A square cover would require a dolly or two persons.

And another? A round cover need not be rotated to fit the hole.

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